chapter 22.htm

His 102

Chapter 22


I.                    The France of Napoleon III

A.     The Second Napoleonic Empire

1.      Domestic Policies

2.      Foreign Policy:  Crimean War

a.       causes; conduct; significance


II.                 National Unification

A.     Italy

1.      leadership of Covour and Kingdom of Piedmont

2.      Giuseppe Garibaldi and the drive for independence

B.     Germany

1.      The efforts of Bismarck

2.      Unification through War:  Danish War (1864); Austro-Prussian (1866); Franco-Prussian (1870-1871)


III.               Nation Building & Reform:  National State in Mid-Century

A.     Austrian Empire:  The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary

B.     Russia

1.      Abolition of Serfdom

2.      Other Reforms

C.     Great Britain:  The Victorian Age

1.      Disraeli & Reform Act of 1867

2.      Gladstone


IV.              Science and Culture in an Age of Realism

A.     New Age of Science Ė industrial technology & scientific research

1.      Darwinian Evolution

2.      Health Care advances

B.     Science & Study of Society

1.      Auguste Comte

2.      Realism in Literature

3.      Realism in Art

4.      Music:  Twilight of Romanticism


Reading Guide


  1. What were the characteristics of Napoleon IIIís government?
  2. How did Napoleonís foreign policy contribute to the unification of Italy and Germany?
  3. What were the causes and results of the Crimean War?
  4. What actions did Cavour and Bismarck take to bring about unification in Italy and Germany, respectively, and what role did war play in their efforts?
  5. What were the transformations occurring in the Austrian Empire, Russia, and England between 1850 and 1870?
  6. How successful were the reforms efforts in these countries in alleviating each nationís problems?
  7. How did the belief that the world should be viewed realistically manifest itself in science, art, and literature in the second half of the nineteenth century?



Nationalism was and continues to be a powerful ideology (remember September 11, 2001?).  However, it is also a fairly complicated idea that has many components.  It is our job as historians to understand some of those components.  In the 19th century nationalism was often linked to feelings of pride.  Analyze this component of nationalism in both France and Germany using Bismark "Goads" France into War, p. 630; and the picture of the proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors, p. 620.  You also should read about this event on pages 630-631.  In the case of France and Germany did nationalism  mean more or less freedom for the people of those countries?  Using the document Tsar Alexander II, Imperial Decree and President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (page 634) assess how nationalism and reform were linked. Is it a strong link?  Overall, you are looking to understand the factors involved in nationalism, and to assess the positive and negative sides to it.